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There is an area between each pair of vertebrae known as the intervertebral foramina or neural foramina. When disc, ligament, or bone spurs enter this the space, the nerves within can get compressed. This procedure involves taking out a part of the vertebral bone or excess tissue (such as the disc or ligaments) to produce a larger space for the nerve root.
In anatomical terms, a foramin is a term referring to any opening in the body. It’s usually in reference to a space within or between bones, but it can refer to a natural opening inside tissues too.
To access the intervertebral foramina, an incision is made in the back and muscles are separated and retracted in a similar way to that during a microdiscectomy. Excess tissue and/or bone are cut away until the desired opening has been formed and the nerve is no longer under pressure.